The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, was a Victorian-era means of communication in which various  flowers and floral arrangements were used to send coded messages, allowing individuals to express feelings which otherwise could not be spoken. The Japanese flower language is called Hanakotoba.

Acacia - Secret love; chaste love; beauty in retirement; elegance; friendship; hope
Acanthus - Art or artistic; the fine arts; artifice
Achillea millefolia - War
Aconite (Wolf's Bane) - Misanthropy
Acorn - Nordic symbol of life and immortality
Agapanthus - Love letters
Agnus castus - Coldness; indifference
Allspice - Compassion
Almond Blossom - Hope; lover's charm
Aloe - Grief
Alstroemeria - Devotion; friendship
Alyssum - Worth beyond beauty
Ambrosia - Love returned
Amaranth - Fidelity
Amaranth, Globe - Unchangeable; immortality; unchanging love
Amaryllis - Pride; Timidity; splendid beauty
Anemone - Unfading love; truth; sincerity; anticipation; forsaken; fading hope
Angelica - Inspiration
Aniseed - Restoration of youth
Apple blossom - Preference; good fortune
Arbor Vitae - True friendship
Arbutus - Thee only do I love
Artemisia - Dignity
Asphodel - My regrets follow you to the grave
Aster - Love; daintiness
- Take care of yourself for me; fragile passion; temperance; Chinese symbol of womanhood


Bachelor's Buttons - Celibacy; single blessedness; hope in love
Baby's Breath - Everlasting love; happiness; pure in heart
Basil - Best Wishes; love; hatred
Bay Leaf - Strength; I change but in death
Bear's Breeches - Art or artistic; the fine arts; artifice
Begonia - Beware
Betony - Surprise
Bells Of Ireland - Good luck
Bilberry - Treachery
Bird Of Paradise - Magnificence
Bittersweet - Truth
Bluebell - Humility; constancy
Borage - Courage; bluntness
Bouquet of withered flowers - Rejected love
Broom - Humility; neatness
Bulrush - Indiscretion; docility
Burnet - A merry heart
- Cheerfulness; ingratitude; childishness; desire for riches


Cactus - Endurance; warmth; grandeur
Calendula - Joy
Calla - Magnificent beauty
Camellia - Admiration; perfection; good luck gift to a man; loveliness
Camellia (Pink) - Longing for you
Camellia (Red) - You're a flame in my heart
Camellia (White) - You're adorable
Camomile - Energy in adversity
Candytuft - Indifference
Carnation (in general) - Bonds of affection; health and energy; fascination; alas for my poor heart
Carnation (pink) - I'll never forget you
Carnation (purple) - Capriciousness; whimsical; changeable
Carnation (red) - My heart aches for you; admiration
Carnation (solid colour) -Yes
Carnation (striped) - No; refusal; sorry I can't be with you; wish I could be with you
Carnation (white) -Sweet and lovely; innocence; pure love; woman's good luck gift

Carnation (yellow) - You have disappointed me; Rejection; disdain
Cattail - Peace; prosperity
Cedar - I live for thee; think of me
Celandine - Joys to come
Chamomile - Patience ; attracts wealth
Chysanthemum (in general) - Cheerfulness; You're a wonderful friend
Chysanthemum (red) - I love
Chysanthemum (white) - Truth
Chysanthemum (yellow) -Slighted love
Cinnamon - My fortune is yours
Clover (four-leaf) - Good luck; be mine
- Folly
Coreopsis - Always cheerful
Corn - Riches
Cornflower - Delicacy; refinement
Coriander - Lust
Cowslip - Pensiveness; winning grace
Coxcomb - Foppery
Crocus - Cheerfulness; abuse not; joy
Crown Imperial - Majesty; power
Cyclamen - Resignation and goodbye; diffidence

Daffodil - Respect; regard; unrequited love; deceit
Dahlia - Good taste; instability
Daisy - Innocence; loyal love; purity; faith; cheer; simplicity
Dandelion - Wishes come true; faithfulness; happiness; rustic oracle
Daphne odora - Painting the lily
Delphinium - Airy
Dogwood - Durability

Edelweiss - Daring; noble courage
Eglantine - Poetry; I wound to heal
Elder - Zealousness
Elm - Dignity
Eucalyptus - Protection
Eupatorium - Delay


Fennel - Worthy of all praise; strength
Fern - Sincerity
Fern (Magic) - Fascination; confidence and shelter
Fern (Maidenhair) - Secret bond of love
Feverfew - Protection
Fig - Argument
Fir - Time
Flax - Domestic symbol; fate; I feel your kindness
Forget-me-not - True love; memories; forget me not
Forsythia - Anticipation
Foxglove - Insincerity
Fuchsia - Good taste
Fuller's Teasel - Misanthropy


Gardenia - You're lovely; secret love; refinement; joy
Garland of roses - Reward of virtue
Garlic - Courage; strength
Geranium (Oak leafed) - Friendship
Geranium (Rose) - Preference
Geranium (Scented) - Preference, melancholy; stupidity; folly
Gillyflower - Bonds of affection
Gladiolus - Love at first sight; ready-armed; strength of character; generosity
Gloxinia - Love at first sight
Golden Rod - Precaution
Grass - Submission; utility
Guelder Rose - Winter; age


Harebell - Submission; grief
Hawthorn - Hope
Hazel - Reconciliation
Heather (lavender) - Admiration; solitude
Heather (pink) - Good luck
Heather (white) - Protection; wishes will come true; good luck
Helenium - Tears
Heliotrope - Devotion; eternal love; faithfulness
Hemlock - You will be my death
Hibiscus - Delicate beauty
Holly - Good will; defence; domestic happiness; foresight
Hollyhock - Female ambition; fecundity
Honesty - Honesty; fascination
Honeysuckle - Generous and devoted affection; sweetness of disposition
Hop - Injustice
Hyacinth (general) - Rashness, sorrow, flower dedicated to Apollo
Hyacinth (blue) - Constancy
Hyacinth ( purple) - I'm sorry; please forgive me; sorrow
Hyacinth (red or pink) - Play
Hyacinth (white) - Loveliness; I'll pray for you
Hyacinth (yellow) - Jealousy
Hydrangea - Thank you for understanding; frigidity; heartlessness; vanity
- Wards away evil spirits; cleanliness

Ice plant - Your looks freeze me
Iris - Faith; hope; wisdom and valour; my compliments; eloquence; message
- Fidelity; friendship; affection; marriage


Jasmine - Amiability; wealth; grace and elegance
Jonquil - Love me; affection returned; desire; sympathy
Judas Tree - Unbelief; betrayal
Juniper - Protection; succour


Kingcup - Desire for riches


Laburnum - Forsaken; pensive beauty
Larkspur (pink) - Fickleness; levity
Laurel (mountain) - Ambition; glory
Lavender - Devotion, distrust
Lemon - Zest
Lemon Balm - Brings love
Lemon verbena - Attracts opposite sex
Lilac - First love
Lily (general) - Purity
Lily (calla) - Beauty
Lily (day) - Coquetry
Lily (eucharis) - Maidenly charms
Lily (orange) - Hatred
Lily (tiger) - Wealth; pride
Lily (white) - Virginity; purity; majesty; it's heavenly to be with you
Lily (yellow) - I'm walking on air; false and gay
Lily of the valley - sweetness; return to happiness; humility; perferct purity
Lobelia - Malevolence
Love-in-a-mist - Perplexity
Love-lies-bleeding - Hopeless; not heartless
Lupin - Voraciousness; admiration


Magnolia - Sweetness; beauty; love of nature; nobility; dignity; splendid beauty
Marigold - Comforts the heart; grief; cruelty; jealousy; sacred affection
Marjoram (sweet) - Joy and happiness; blushes
Meadowsweet - Uselessness
Michaelmas Daisy - Afterthought; farewell
Mignionette - Your qualities surpass your charms
Mimosa - Sensitivity
Mint - Protection from illness; warmth of feeling; virtue
Mistletoe - Kiss me; affection; I surmount difficulties; sacred plant of India, magic plant of the Druids
Monkshood - Beware, a deadly foe is near; chivalry
Morning Glory - Affectation
Moss - Maternal love; charity
Myrrh - Gladness
Myrtle - Love; love in absence; remembrance; Hebrew emblem of marriage
Myrtle (wax)
- Discipline; instruction

Narcissus - Egotism; formality; stay as sweet as you are; you love yourself too well; self-esteem
Nasturtium - Conquest; victory in battle; maternal love; charity; patriotism
Nightshade - Truth

Oak leaves - Bravery
Oleander - Caution; beware
Orange - Generosity
Orange Blossom - Wisdom; purity; eternal love; your purity equals your loveliness
Orange (mock) - Deceit
Orchid - Love; beauty; refinement; you flatter me
Orchid (Cattleya) - Mature charm

Palm leaves - Victory and success
Pansy - Thoughts; love
Parsley - Festivities

Pasque Flower - You have no claims
Peach blossom - Longevity; I am your captive
Peony - Shame; bashfulness; anger; indignation
Peppermint - Warmth of feelings
Periwinkle (blue) - Early friendship
Periwinkle (white) - Pleasures of memory
Persicaria - Restoration
Petunia - Resentment; anger; your presence soothes me; never despairing
Phlox - Agreement; unanimity; sweet dreams
Pine - Hope; pity
Pink - Boldness
Poinsettia - Be of good cheer
Polyanthus - Pride of riches
Poppy (general) - Eternal sleep; oblivion; imagination; extravagance
Poppy (red) -Pleasure; fantastic extravagance
Poppy (white) - Consolation; sleep
Poppy( yellow) - Wealth; success
Prickly Pear - Satire
Primrose - I can't live without you; early youth; young love
Primrose (evening)
- Inconstancy

Quaking Grass - Agitation
Queen Anne's Lace - Fantasy
Quince - Temptation

Ranunculus - You are radiant with charms
Rocket - Rivalry
Rose (red) - Love ; I love you
Rose (white) - Eternal Love; innocence; heavenly; secrecy and silence
Rose (pink) - Perfect happiness; please believe me
Rose (yellow) - Friendship; jealousy; try to care
Rose (black) - Death
Rose (red and white) - Together; unity
Rose (thornless) - Love at first sight
Rose (single, full bloom) - I love you; I still love you
Rose bud - Beauty and youth; a heart innocent of love
Rose bud (red) - Pure and lovely
Rose bud (white) - Girlhood
Rosebud (moss) - Confessions of love
Roses (bouquet of full bloom) - Gratitude
Roses (garland or crown of) - Beware of virtue; reward of merit; crown ; symbol of superior merit
Roses (musk cluster) - Charming
Rose (tea) - I'll always remember
Rose (cabbage) - Ambassador of love
Rose (Christmas) - Tranquilize my anxiety; anxiety
Rose (damask) - Brilliant complexion

Rose (dark crimson) - Mourning
Rose (hibiscus) - Delicate beauty
Rose leaf - You may hope
Rosemary - Remembrance; commitment; fidelity
Rudbeckia - Justice
- Disdain

Saffron - Beware of excess
Sage - Wisdom; long life; domestic virtue
Salvia (blue) - I think of you
Scabious - Unfortunate love
Shamrock - Lightheartedness
Smilax - Loveliness
Snapdragon - No; deception; gracious lady; presumption
Snowdrop - Hope
Spearmint - Warmth of sentiment
Spiderflower - Elope with me
Spindle Tree - Your charms are engraved on my heart
Statice - Lasting beauty
Star of Bethlehem - Atonement; purity
Stephanotis - Happiness in marriage; desire to travel; come to me
Stock - Lasting beauty; promptness
Strawberry - Perfect goodness
Sunflower - Loyalty; haughtiness; you are splendid
Sweet Basil - Good luck
Sweet pea - Goodbye; departure; blissful pleasure; Thank you for a lovely time
Sweet William - Grant me one smile; perfection; gallantry
Syringa - Memory


Tamarisk - Crime
Thrift - Sympathy
Thyme - Strength and courage; activity
Tuberose - Dangerous pleasure
Tulip (general) - Fame; charity; declaration of love;
Tulip (red) - Believe me; declaration of love
Tulip (variegated) - Beautiful eyes
Tulip (yellow)
- Hopeless love


Valerian - An accommodating disposition
Vernal Grass - Poor but happy
Veronica - Fidelity
Violet - Modesty; faithfulness
Violet (blue) - Watchfulness; faithfulness; I'll always be true
Violet (white) - Let's take a chance on happiness
Viscaria - Will you dance with me?

Wallflower - Fidelity in adversity
Water Lily - Purity of heart
Wistaria - I cling to you
Woodruff - Sweet humility
Wormwood - Absence


Xeranthemum - Cheerfulness under adversity


Yarrow - Health; healing
Yew - Sorrow

Zinnia - Thoughts of friends
Zinnia (magenta) - Lasting affection
Zinnia (mixed) - Thinking of an absent friend
Zinnia (scarlet) - Constancy
Zinnia (white) - Goodness
Zinnia (yellow)
- Daily remembrance